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神になった魚―カムイチェプ

サケに関わる信仰の概略をまとめたページです。
神になった魚―カムイチェプ
主要部分を引用すると、


アイヌ語でサケをシペ(Sipe)ともいう。真の魚、という意味だ。主食という意味もある。本当に大切な魚だったことが、これらの呼び名からもわかる。
 アイヌ民族にとって身の回りのものは全てカムイの国からやってくる。サケもまた、神の国からやってきたのである。自らもアイヌ民族のひとりであり、北海道大学教授であったアイヌ研究者・知里真志保は、論文「神謡について」のなかでこう語っている。
「アイヌにおいては、獣鳥虫魚介草木日月星辰みな神である(―というよりも、神々が我々人間の目にふれるときに限り、かりにあのような姿をとって現れる、という考え方である)」
 獣鳥虫魚介草木日月星辰みな神である、という表現がすごい。
 サケは神の国からやってきて、人間の国で食べものになり、また神の国へ帰っていく。
 このような精神文化は、北方圏に共通しているもので、たとえばカナダ先住民にも「サケの国」の伝説がある。
 日本でもサケが神になった地域は多い。

ということです。海から大量に訪れるということは、海の先にサケが集まる神の国がある、という発想がアイヌをはじめ、北方諸民族の中にみられる、ということです。このページではあまり触れられていませんが、サケにまつわる信仰には次のような特徴があるような気がします。
  サケは神の国から訪れる特別な魚である。
  人々は神の恩恵によって、タンパク源としてサケがたくさん食べられる。
  サケは神の国からまとまって人界を訪れる。
  それに先立ち前触れのサケが遣わされる。
なので、サケに関わる信仰には、初鮭、つまり最初に捕れるサケに対する信仰が広くみられる。ということです。こうした儀礼を初鮭儀礼と呼びます。日本では最初のサケを取ると、神棚やエビス様などに供え、その身を漁師仲間や家族などで分け合って食べる、といったかたちの儀礼・行事として新潟県から山形県にかけて濃密にみることができます。
 漁期の後の豊漁感謝の儀礼や、出漁前の豊漁祈願の儀礼はサケに限らず多くの魚などにありますが、漁を開始してから行う儀礼はあまり聞いたことがありません。サケという魚を巡る信仰の特徴だと思っています。
 ただ、初鮭儀礼は全ての北方民族が持っているわけではなく、北西海岸インディアンと呼ばれるアメリカ大陸沿岸と日本列島程度です。サケが非常に多く上るカムチャッカ半島などでは、終漁儀礼はあるのですが初鮭儀礼はない、と報告されており、こうしたサケの文化的な位置づけは必ずしも普遍的なものではないようです。私の中では生息範囲の縁辺地域であるため豊凶の差がでやすいが故に、初鮭儀礼が行われるようになったのではないかと思っています。まあ、この点はまだまだ課題が多い、仮説の3歩手前みたいな話なので、ちょっとしたアイディアとしてお読み下さい。

2004 06 01 03:53 PM | 固定リンク

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