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そろそろ定置網漁の季節です

 そろそろ日本沿岸での定置網漁がはじまるようです。北海道では9月初頭より開始、三陸では9月下旬ころからがシーズンのようです。
 そこで、シーズンに先立ち、ネット上から情報を少し紹介いたします。

 まずは、釧路市水産業対策協議会のサイトから
サケ定置網漁業
 釧路沿岸の定置網の設置状況、網の形態等について図入りで紹介されています。
 また、定置網を設置する場所については、こちらのエッセイが参考になります。
忠類川・サケ・マス釣獲調査・ニュースvol.35
 以前紹介した忠類川のサイトに掲載されています。若干引用すると


◎小定置網
例年8月からカラフトマスが溯上を始める。この時期は「マス網」と言われている小定置網が海に所狭しと入っている。この網は、全長300mの小型の定置網なのですが特徴としては、渚から網が入っているのです。この時期に海を回遊しているカラフトマスは、波打ち際を回遊しています。ようするに渚から5mの範囲内を通っていることが多く、これを一網打尽にする網の仕組みとなっているのが一番の特徴と言えます。ただし河川に溯上させ、孵化事業用の卵を確保するために毎年8/12~16日までの間に網を撤去して河川に溯上を促進させています。この直後に大挙してカラフトマスの溯上が起きる訳なのです。忠類川開始以来、その状況は変わっていないので今年も同じはずこのマス網は、サケ定置網が解禁になる直前にすべて撤去されるのです。
◎本格的サケ定置網
また今年は、本格的なサケ定置網の解禁が8/27からに変更になりました!標津町では全部で28ヶ所の定置網が設置されています。先の小定置網は、波打ち際から網が入っているけど、この本定置網は、逆に渚から100mが空いて設置になるのです。これは、川に溯上を促進させるための処置でもあります。去年までは、9/1にサケ漁解禁になっていたけど今年は、時期が4日早くなっている。
(後略)

 定置網そのものは、対象とする魚ごとに違うのですが、サケ科の中でもこのように違いがあることがわかります。それにしてもカラフトマスが渚から5mの範囲を通っているとは。なお解禁日は1999年のものです。例年9月1日を基準に前後数日の変動があるようです。

 定置網関連ではこんな記事もありました。
サケ定置網漁を前に「土俵」づくり


この水産会社によりますと、俵は海の中では1年ほどで腐食してなくなるため、定置網漁でよく使われるナイロン製の袋に砂を詰めた重しより、環境にもやさしいということです。

とのこと。確かにプラスチック製の浮子なども含め、漁業廃棄物(っていう言葉があるのかな?)は問題になっていますから、一つの配慮なのでしょうね。古い水産図譜などをみると、網の錘に俵をつかっているものがありますので、古い技術が現在によみがえった例なのだと思います。

定置網漁に関するルポ・体験記としては、たくさんあるのですが、このあたりを紹介させていただきます。
石狩川 秋
北海道新聞2002年10月16日付け特集きじより、石狩川河口部における定置網漁の様子です。

一網打尽
こちらは余市で小学校の先生をなさっている涌井大輔さんのサイトから、紹介で漁船にのった体験記です。

ただいま修業中
 北海道漁連のサイトから、”ただいま修業中”という23歳の漁師さんのルポが乗っています。静内の定置網漁師の一年の様子をみることができます。

ということで、ひとまず紹介でした。また漁期が始まったら改めて紹介します。

2004 08 19 01:26 PM | 固定リンク

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