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鮭川のサケ漁(その1)

 山形県の文化を紹介するサイトに、最上郡戸沢村金打坊地区の川漁の様子を紹介したエッセイがありました。
 
秋の章

 戸沢村は鮭川が最上川に合流する一体に位置する自治体で、鮭川はその名の通り、サケが遡上する川です。私もその名にひかれ、何度となく調査に伺っています。
 このエッセイでも紹介されるように、このあたりの人は夏は鮎漁、それから稲刈りをはさんでサケ漁というのが生活のリズムになっているようです。昭和40年ころまでは男が川でサケをとり、それを家の女性が新庄などに売りに行く、というかたちで進められ、大きな収入となっていました。どのくらいかといえば、サケの収入で人を雇えるので、農作業をする必要がない、というくらいだったそうです。
 川漁は、一部に専業の人もいますが、経済性をもった魚が少ないこともあり、多くは農家などが副業として行います。サケは稲作の作業が一段落したあとに行えることから、非常に有効な副業であり、サケ漁の権利をもっていれば出稼ぎにいかなくてもやっていけた、などという話など、その経済性をめぐる話は各地で聞くことができます。
 で、この鮭川流域ですが、いろいろと話を聞いていると、かなり地域差があるようです。今回紹介した金打坊の場合だと、収益が集落に分配されていたと書かれています。これだけ読むと「原始共産制!」などと書いてしまいそうですが、これなども、集落が持つ漁場とその収益から考え出された方法なのだと思います。サケ漁は、特に河口にちかいほどどれだけ獲らないかが問題となる漁です(だって、全部獲ると上流の人が困ってしまいますから)。なるべく多くの収益を、という点と、なるべく獲らないという上流からの要望のなかで、この集落が選んだ方法ということなのだと思います。また、別の地区に行くと漁場は集落ごとに毎年交替して公平に収入が上がるようにした、という話もあります。鮭川ではサケ漁の権利に関しては、主として集落ごとに漁場をきめ、その中での漁獲の扱いや漁場の割り振りはそれぞれの集落ごとに決めて運営していました。

 ということで、鮭川のサケ漁は書きたいことも多いので、勝手に連載とさせていただきます。次回以降、もう少し漁について報告させていただきます。
 

2004 08 31 03:46 PM | 固定リンク

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